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Internet service provider

An Internet service provider (abbr. ISP, also called Internet access provider or IAP) is a business or organization that provides to consumers access to the Internet and related services. In the past, most ISPs were run by the phone companies. Now, ISPs can be started by just about any individual or group with sufficient money and expertise. In addition to Internet access via various technologies such as dial-up and DSL, they may provide a combination of services including Internet transit, domain name registration and hosting, web hosting, and colocation.

ISP connection options

ISPs employ a range of technologies to enable consumers to connect to their network. For "home users", the most popular options include dial-up, DSL (typically ADSL), Broadband wireless access, Cable modem, and ISDN (typically BRI). For customers who have more demanding requirements, such as medium-to-large businesses, or other ISPs, DSL (often SHDSL or ADSL), Ethernet, Metro Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN (BRI or PRI), ATM, satellite Internet access and SONET are more likely. With the increasing popularity of downloading music and online video and the general demand for faster page loads, higher bandwidth connections are becoming more popular.

How ISPs connect to the Internet

Just as their customers pay them for Internet access, ISPs themselves pay upstream ISPs for Internet access. In the simplest case, a single connection is established to an upstream ISP using one of the technologies described above, and the ISP uses this connection to send or receive any data to or from parts of the Internet beyond its own network; in turn, the upstream ISP uses its own upstream connection, or connections to its other customers (usually other ISPs) to allow the data to travel from source to destination.

In reality, the situation is often more complicated. For example, ISPs with more than one Point of Presence (PoP) may have separate connections to an upstream ISP at multiple PoPs, or they may be customers of multiple upstream ISPs and have connections to each one at one or more of their PoPs. ISPs may engage in peering, where multiple ISPs interconnect with one another at a peering point or Internet exchange point (IX), allowing the routing of data between their networks, without charging one another for that data - data that would otherwise have passed through their upstream ISPs, incurring charges from the upstream ISP. ISPs who require no upstream, and have only customers and/or peers, are called Tier 1 ISPs, indicating their status as ISPs at the top of the Internet hierarchy. Routers, switches, Internet routing protocols, and the expertise of network administrators all have a role to play in ensuring that data follows the best available route and that ISPs can "see" one another on the Internet.

Virtual ISP

A Virtual ISP (vISP) purchases services from another ISP (sometimes called a wholesale ISP or similar within this context) that allow the vISP's customers to access the Internet via one or more Points of Presence (PoPs) that are owned and operated by the wholesale ISP. There are various models for the delivery of this type of service, for example, the wholesale ISP could provide network access to end users via its dial-up modem PoPs or DSLAMs installed in telephone exchanges, and route, switch, and/or tunnel the end user traffic to the vISP's network, whereupon they may route the traffic toward its destination. In another model, the vISP does not route any end user traffic, and needs only provide AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting) functions, as well as any "value-add" services like email or web hosting. Any given ISP may use their own PoPs to deliver one service, and use a vISP model to deliver another service, or, use a combination to deliver a service in different areas. The service provided by a wholesale ISP in a vISP model is distinct from that of an upstream ISP, even though in some cases, they may both be one and the same company. The former provides connectivity from the end user's premises to the Internet or to the end user's ISP, the latter provides connectivity from the end user's ISP to all or parts of the rest of the Internet.

A vISP can also refer to a completely automated white label service offered to anyone at no cost or for a minimal set-up fee. The actual ISP providing the service generates revenue from the calls and may also share a percentage of that revenue with the owner of the vISP. All technical aspects are dealt with leaving the owner of vISP with the task of promoting the service. This sort of service is however declining due to the popularity of unmetered internet access also known as flatrate.

What is an ISP?

An ISP (Internet Service Provider) is a company that collects a monthly or yearly fee in exchange for providing the subscriber with Internet access.

An ISP might provide dial-up service, cable, DSL, or other types of Internet access. Some ISPs are local while others are national. A national ISP will provide access throughout most of the nation, while a local ISP will only serve subscribers in a limited geographical region.

When looking for an ISP the initial consideration is the type of access desired. Some ISPs only offer dial-up access which is the slowest type of connection. If you want cable service, you'll be checking with your local cable TV provider to see if cable access is offered. For DSL service, you may have multiple choices - or it could be that DSL is not yet available in your area. Often this can be remedied with a call to the phone company to upgrade local telephone lines.

Every ISP has a privacy policy and Terms of Service (TOS) contract that subscribers must agree to before subscription will be accepted. The privacy policy will state what the company will and will not do with personal information collected at the time of sign-up. Name, address, and normally a credit card number are required. The privacy policy should also state under what conditions your personal information might be shared with third parties, government officials, or others. The TOS contract stipulates how you can use the service. For example, dial-up access is often sold as "unlimited access" but this is not to be taken literally. Dial-up accounts normally limit hours per month to 250-400, depending on the ISP. Truly unlimited access (leaving your computer on and actively connected to the Internet 24/7) is called dedicated access. Most DSL or cable subscriptions allow dedicated access.

The Terms of Service contract of the ISP will also state rules about hacking, protecting copyrighted materials, denial of service attacks, harassing other people, spam, compromising the service, and many other issues. These are as much for the legal protection of the ISP as to let potential subscribers know what the ISP will and will not tolerate. If you are planning on using web space provided by the ISP, check for limitations here too. Many ISPs do not allow commercial websites to be set up on their servers. This usually means that nothing can be sold from your personal webspace, including for example, a software program you wrote, original music, or any other item. ISP websites are normally for personal use only, to blog, post pictures, and so on.

Once you find an ISP that offers the services, privacy policy and TOS you can live with, you can sign up online through a public terminal, or call. From here all that needs to be done is to enter the ISP access number and a few other parameters into the networking software on your computer.

ISP services range in price according to the package offered, and type of service. Dial-up is least expensive, and perks will vary greatly between ISPs. Some offer multiple email accounts, others vast amounts of webspace, and still others discounts for paying in advance. DSL and cable companies will also differ, so carefully read through offerings before deciding. If you are getting an ISP other than cable, you will likely have choices. There are many websites that offer reviews from present subscribers of various ISPs, which might be helpful in making a decision.

 ISP Connection

ISP connections split into two main categories: Dialup ISP and Broadband Internet.

Dialup ISP

Dialup is the most basic type of ISP in which you require phone line to connect to internet. Dialup internet intended to provide 56 Kbps or lower speed. For internet


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